Historical Developmental Dynamics of Climate Change, Political Economy, and Science and Technology by Fazal Rahman, Ph.D. + Costs and Consequences of US Post-9/11 Wars: Focus on Climate Change

Ende Gelände: Day 1 - Climate activists shut down one of Europe's largest opencast lignite mines

Image by Break Free via Flickr

by Fazal Rahman, Ph.D.
Writer, Dandelion Salad
Originally published on imperialismandthethirdworld, Feb. 1, 2020
February 4, 2020

A recent article on climate emergency (Ripple et. al. 2020), endorsed by more than 11000 scientists from 153 countries, has received widespread publicity in the media. This is the latest among numerous scientifically researched articles on climate change and global warming, which have been published by various organizations on this one of the greatest problems that have developed on this planet, directly as a result of the activities of particular type of humans, the Modern Capitalist-Imperialist Humans (MCIH), which have evolved from the co-evolution of science and technology and capitalist political economy, during the previous few centuries. These complex and multidimensional developments have been progressively accelerating, with the greatest accelerations occurring during the 20th Century and the current 21st Century.

As in numerous other areas of reality that has been created on this planet, the problems of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction; climate change and global warming; ozone layer depletion in the atmosphere; destruction of the ecology of nature; pollution of air, water, soil, and food; ever-increasing militarism and arms race throughout various countries of the world, initiated and perpetuated by the sinister insanity of quest for global domination by the US and NATO imperialism; etc., are being addressed fragmentally from each other, mostly as single issues, especially by the scientific community, which operates self-confidently within the narrow limits of what it considers to be objectivity and scientific methodology, and confuses abstract facts of specialized sciences with truth. Data and facts of specialized sciences, in themselves, do not constitute truth. Truth is a very complex category that, among other areas, consists of interrelated facts and data in the relevant areas of relevant sciences, philosophy, and ethics. It is interdisciplinary in nature. Such scientism cannot address, perceive, or understand the macro-level problems of overall realities. It also cannot create a macro-level unified theory, which may link all the diverse macro-level problems together and discover their essence, in which these are rooted. Almost all the contemporary environmental movements are also inflicted with this crucial flaw and are dealing with problems like the climate change fragmentally, as single issues, without integrating and relating them to their historically developed causes and essence, which are rooted in the co-evolution of science and technology, political economy of capitalism, and capitalist and imperialist human nature. It is self-evident that unless the real causes of various problems are identified, these cannot be solved. It is the co-evolution of science and technology, political economy of capitalism, and capitalist and imperialist human nature, which have created all these diverse macro-level problems. Now, a section of scientific community has become aware of the great disaster towards which the climate change is leading mankind, and is publicizing the relevant facts in numerous reports. Even though all these are important, these are inadequate by themselves, as these lack a proper theoretical framework and are unable to relate this problem to its essence and real causes. Hence, these have produced very little actual results. This will continue to be the case as long as this flawed approach is maintained in relation to such macro-level problems. It is also relevant to mention that only a relatively very small section of the scientific community has become involved in this matter. Overwhelming majority of scientists and technicians are working in areas of science and technology and industry that produce environmental pollutants and enhance the macro-level problems of climate change, global warming, pollution, as well as other macro-level problems, some of which are mentioned above. For example, those working in the fossil fuels and transportation systems based on them, chemicals, and armaments and military related research and development.

According to the data of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (based in Paris), 63 percent of the research and development activity of a total of 700,000 scientists, engineers and technicians working in the U.S. during 1967 was on behalf of the military (Melman 1970, p. 187). As the military budgets have increased enormously after that data were published, it is certain that the total number of scientists, engineers and technicians, as well as the percentage of those working on behalf of the military, have also greatly increased.

In numerous countries, militaries are the worst polluters of the environment, contributing enormously to global warming and climate change. For example, as documented by Saxifrage, the United States military is one of the world’s largest climate polluters — emitting more than entire European countries like Sweden or Norway. That’s according to a new report that estimates the U.S. Department of Defence’s worldwide emissions at nearly 60 million tonnes (MtCO2).

The lion’s share of its emissions, however, come from the energy used to carry out its operations. As the report notes: “With an armed force of more than two million people … and the most advanced military aircraft the DOD is the world’s largest institutional user of petroleum.”

Around 70 per cent is jet fuel for bombers, jet fighters, cargo planes and other support aircraft. These aircraft burn gallons of this fossil fuel per mile.

Much of the rest is diesel for vehicles. In just one example, the report notes that the U.S. Army alone has around 60,000 HUMVEEs that burn one gallon every four to eight miles (Saxifrage 2019. Much of this information is cited from the following comprehensive research article by Crawford).

Following information is from Crawford’s comprehensive research on this matter.

Indeed, the DOD (US Department of Defense) is the world’s largest institutional user of petroleum and correspondingly, the single largest producer of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the world. The DOD is the single largest consumer of energy in the US, and in fact, the world’s single largest institutional consumer of petroleum. Since 2001, the DOD has consistently consumed between 77 and 80 percent of all US government energy consumption. The US military annually consumes more fuel than most countries.

In any one year, the Pentagon’s emissions are greater than many smaller countries total greenhouse gas emissions. For example, in 2017, US DOD greenhouse gas emissions were 59 million metric tons (not including biogenic emissions) of CO2e. In that same year, Pentagon emissions were greater than Finland, which emitted 46.8 million metric tons, Sweden which emitted 50.8 million metric tons, and Denmark which emitted 33.5 million metric tons of CO2.

The best estimate of US military greenhouse gas emissions from 2001, when the wars began with the US invasion of Afghanistan, through 2017, is that the US military has emitted 1,212 million metric tons of greenhouse gases (measured in CO2 equivalent, or CO2e). In 2017, for example, the Pentagon’s greenhouse gas emissions were greater than the greenhouse gas emissions of entire industrialized countries as Sweden or Denmark.

Crawford has previously estimated that the budgetary costs of the post-9/11 wars, including Homeland Security and our future obligations to care for the veterans of these wars, are nearly $6 trillion dollars (Crawford 2018).

There has been enormous scientific research on global warming and pollution and destruction of the natural environment. However, there is very little on the role that social and politico-economic environments play in all that, as well as in the regulation of human nature itself. After all, it is a particular type of human nature, the modern capitalist-technocratic form, which has been, and continues to be, responsible for the creation and perpetuation of these problems. Dr. Barry Commoner, one of the most important environmental scientists and founders of environmental movement, had tried to reveal the connection between political economy and environmental erosion. However, he was a very rare exception among the environmental scientists, almost all of whom are either unaware of that connection, or exclude it from their research and conclusions.

I have background in many areas of biological and social sciences and am a theoretical interdisciplinary researcher and writer, with focus on the biosocial and epigenetic relativity of human nature, relative to political economy, culture, and technocracy. I created a new and original macro-level theory in this area, the original version of which was published in an interdisciplinary scientific journal in the US, Journal of Social and Biological Structures, in 1980 (Rahman 1980). I gave up my career in specialized areas of science to focus on this interdisciplinary research.

My own research has been theoretical and interdisciplinary, in the areas of social and biological sciences. It is much broader and more comprehensive than the researches of almost all the environmental scientists, as it focuses on the role and effects of politico-economic and social environments in biosocial and epigenetic relativity of human nature, which are fundamental to the effects of human activities on the natural environment, including the climate change. The simplest and most essential conclusion of my theoretical research is that erosion and destruction of the ecology of nature is inextricably and dialectically related to and is the manifestation of the erosion and destruction of the ecology of human nature.

The problems that have been created by the Advanced Capitalist-Imperialist Technological Societies (ACITS) are far worse and far more complicated than anyone can imagine, the creation of capitalist technological human nature being the most important and fundamental of them, on the basis of which, all the innumerable and diverse environmental, social, political, international, and other problems are constantly generated. The co-evolution of capitalism, science and technology, and modern capitalist-imperialist humans has created the greatest and most disastrous problems of all human history on this planet. Nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, climate change and global warming, ozone layer depletion in the atmosphere, destruction of the ecology of nature, extinction of enormous numbers of species, pollution of air, water, soil, and food, sinister insanity of quest for global domination by the US and NATO imperialism, etc., are the external symptoms of that co-evolution. However, it has also created disruptions and imbalances in the inner ecology of human nature, which remain unknown and in the dark. I have attempted to shed some light on these in some of my articles by venturing into the terra incognita. One of those articles can be read through the following link. It was posted on my web site https://imperialismandthethirdworld.wordpress.com.


My above paper, Biosocial and epigenetic relativity of human nature, relative to political economy, technology, and culture and another related paper are the only ones ever written or published on these very complex interdisciplinary matters. In these, I have discussed the effects of social and politico-economic environment on the conditioning and regulation of human nature, including on the epigenetic (differential regulation of genes) and biosocial levels. There is extensive research information on differential regulation of genes in various life forms by natural environment, but none, except these two papers, on such regulation in humans by social and politico-economic environment.

For a long time now, almost everyone, including numerous some of the biggest polluting and exploiting corporations, has been jumping on the bandwagon of sustainability, a word that has become very fashionable, and like most other words that become fashionable, has become blasé and is exploited and manipulated endlessly by various organizations and individuals, whose real goal is to sustain and enhance their profits and funds under that mask. In the meantime, almost everything continues to get more and more unsustainable. The real underlying fundamental cause of unsustainability and environmental destruction involves the ever-increasing unsustainabilty of capitalist human natures of billions of people, parasitizing ruthlessly and demonically on everything that exists on this planet, including each other. This unsustainability greatly increases in the ACITS. When human nature itself becomes so unsustainable as it has, nothing else can be sustainable, no matter what clever objective or subjective books or articles are written about it and what solutions are proposed in them, as almost all of them do not even touch that fundamental root of that great problem, which, in any case cannot be resolved with knowledge, information, and education alone. That would require the radical socialist revolutionary transformation of human nature, which can only happen after the revolutionary replacement of capitalism and imperialism with socialism.

The destruction of Planet and its biosphere is beyond the abilities of humans, no matter what weapons and pollutants they create. The Planet and its biosphere will recover from all the damages inflicted upon them by this most destructive and self-destructive species of all, which has temporarily jumped onto the center of the stage of evolution. Planet’s life span consists of billions of years, while human species evolved only around 6 millions years ago, current forms of humans around 200,000 years ago, and civilization around 6,000 years ago. The “enlightened” and modern humans have sprung up only a few centuries ago, and have devastated the planet’s ecology and the ecology of their own human nature during that relatively very short period of time, and especially during the previous 100 years. Human generations’ life span, on average, is probably less than 70 years. Planet has all the time it needs to recover and rejuvenate. Many other species of life also are much more capable to survive the aftermaths of the Third World War or climate change than the humans species, which, especially its so-called “developed” parts, will be the least capable and will certainly be annihilated. It is the human species that does not have much time left to reverse the mad and sinister rush towards the Great Abyss (Rahman 1982 and 2015).

The problems of environmental pollution were much less in the former socialist countries, as compared to the western capitalist countries. However, rapid scientific, technological, military, and industrial developments in those also inevitably caused such problems significantly, especially under the conditions of life and death struggle and competition with the latter, which were trying everything they could, including military invasions, subversions, and threats, to roll back the socio-economico-political gains and changes made there after the socialist revolutions and restore capitalism there, which did happen eventually in most of the former socialist countries, mostly as a result of internal subversions and betrayals of socialism, supported by the powerful imperialist countries of the West, especially the US. Now, the problems of environmental pollution in the former socialist countries are incomparably worse under capitalism than these were under socialism, especially in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), which has now caught up with, and according to some studies, even surpassed, the biggest polluter in the world, the US of A, in environmental pollution. Objectively, the political economy of PRC is not socialist anymore, in spite of being ruled by the so-called “Communist Party” and lip service to socialism by its current leaders. It has been transformed into state capitalism, which is being controlled and regulated by the leaders of the so-called “Communist Party”. Under frenzied capitalist developments, some major cities in India, Pakistan, and other countries, have become the most polluted in the world. In spite of ineffective, hypocritical, and toothless international conferences on stopping and reversing environmental pollution and climate change, these problems are getting far worse, and not any better. A lot of public money is wasted on these conferences, without any substantial results or outcomes. The statements that are made during and after these conferences are not worth the paper these appear on.


Historically, logically, and factually, it should be clear to any honest, thinking, feeling, knowledgeable, and informed person that such macro-level problems, like the environmental pollution and climate change, cannot be solved under the political economies of capitalism and imperialism, as these are their causes. It is hypocritical, foolish, and delusionary to expect solutions within these systems, no matter what changes are proposed to be implemented.

Addition on February 2, 2020

Khan, chief executive of the Civil Society Coalition for Climate Change in Pakistan, wrote an article in the English language newspaper, Dawn, on February 3, 2020, with dire warnings about the bleak future being created in Pakistan and rest of the world, as a result of climate change, population explosions, and ethical-moral atrophy, indifference to the decay of democracy, and emergence of so-called populist autocratic regimes and rulers (Khan 2020). I have added the reference here, after posting my own article.


Crawford, Neta, C. “United States Budgetary Costs of the Post-9/11 Wars Through FY2019: $5.9 Trillion Spent and Obligated,” Costs of War Project, November 2018.

Crawford, Neta, C. Pentagon Fuel Use, Climate Change, and the Costs of War Neta C. Crawford Boston University June 12, 2019. Watson Institute, Brown University.

Khan, Aisha. Age of impunity. Dawn, February 3, 2020.

Melman, S. 1970. Pentagon Capitalism: The Political Economy of War. New York, St. Louis, San Francisco, Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Rahman, F. 1980. “Effects of the contemporary technological model on the genetic regulation of inner human faculties.” Journal of Social and Biological Structures 3: 375-389.

Rahman, F. 1982. Biosocial regulation of human nature by social systems-science and technology-culture complexes. 60 pages. Paper presented at the International Conference of Scientists and Scholars in Grenada, Spain, during 1982. The conference was organized jointly by the Spanish Ministry of Education and Culture and the Swedish International Federation of Institutes for Advanced Studies (IFIAS). Title was changed to Biosocial and epigenetic relativity of human nature: Relative to political economy, technology, and culture, and posted with the following link:

RIPPLE, W. J., CHRISTOPHER WOLF, THOMAS M. NEWSOME, PHOEBE BARNARD, WILLIAM R. MOOMAW, AND 11,258 SCIENTIST SIGNATORIES FROM 153 COUNTRIES (LIST IN SUPPLEMENTAL FILE S1). World Scientists’ Warning of a Climate Emergency. BioScience, January 2020 / Vol. 70 No. 1, pp. 8-12.

Saxifrage, B. Climate pollution from US military and Alberta’s oilsands industry: reports. National Observer, Canada. June 29, 2019. https://www.nationalobserver.com/2019/06/26/opinion/climate-pollution-us-military-and-albertas-oilsands-industry-reports

Dr. Fazal Rahman is an interdisciplinary researcher and writer, with background in many areas of biological and social sciences. He has lived and worked in many countries, like Pakistan, Brazil, USA, Lebanon, and Zambia, as a scientist and head of research and development programs and centers. He has done in-depth and extensive studies on Marxism, Leninism, phenomenology, existentialism, political economy of capitalism and socialism, political economy of US and former USSR, technocracy, psychology, mass psychology, and genetics, etc.

[DS added the video.]

Costs and Consequences of US Post-9/11 Wars: Focus on Climate Change

Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs on Sep 12, 2019

As we observe another anniversary of the Sept. 11, 2001 attack, Neta Crawford, political scientist and co-director of the Costs of War project, discusses the environmental impacts of the post-9/11 wars.

Although greenhouse gas emissions from war were excluded from country reporting during the negotiation of the Kyoto Protocols, a major consequence of war is increased use of fossil fuels. During this event, Crawford will share her recent research calculating the U.S. military’s greenhouse gas emissions associated with the post-9/11 wars.

Neta C. Crawford is a professor of political science and currently chairs the department of political science at Boston University. Her teaching focuses on international relations theory, international ethics, and normative change. Crawford received the Distinguished Scholar award from the International Ethics section of the International Studies Association in 2018.

Her research interests include international relations theory, normative theory, foreign policy decision making, sanctions, peace movements, discourse ethics, post-conflict peacebuilding, research design, utopian science fiction, and emotion. Crawford is also interested in methods for understanding the costs and consequences of war and is co-director of the Eisenhower Study Group “Costs of War” study (www.costsofwar.org) based at Brown University.

Co-sponsored by the Institute at Brown for Environment and Society.

from the archives:

Will Griffin: The US Military is the Largest Institutional Consumer of Fossil Fuels

The Climate Apocalypse Is Accelerating–If We’re Going To Dodge Extinction, We’d Better Hurry by Eric Schechter

Martin Sheen: The Twin Dangers Facing Humanity

If You’re Not Busy Plotting Nonviolent Revolution for Peace and Climate, You’re Busy Dying by David Swanson

Cop25: Never Have So Many Governments Done So Little For So Many by Pete Dolack + Chris Hedges: Sustained Civil Disobedience Necessary To Respond To The Climate Crisis

Christian Sorensen: War Industry Muster–Why Work for the War Industry? + Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab is a Part of the War Industry

Biosocial and Epigenetic Relativity of Human Nature: Relative to Political Economy, Technology, and Culture by Fazal Rahman, Ph.D.

Multidimensional and Complex Nature and Effects of Imperialism On Democracy, Society, Nature, and Human Nature by Fazal Rahman, Ph.D.

19 thoughts on “Historical Developmental Dynamics of Climate Change, Political Economy, and Science and Technology by Fazal Rahman, Ph.D. + Costs and Consequences of US Post-9/11 Wars: Focus on Climate Change

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  8. Good to hear from Fazal; & impossible to argue with the salient points he makes. However there is a case to be made for a failure of free imagination, & the inevitable limitations this imposes and that underwrites these impoverishing cycles of extraction, pollution, exhaustion and collapse that he depicts so vividly ~ all due to these multiple reasons both religious and secular, that can now be mapped thoroughly and even measured precisely.

    If one allows for the concept of authentic, individuated purpose, of creative expression as a potential force to be reckoned with ~ distributed through the immense diversity of socio-cultural space-time and literal habitats, then we can ascribe to the factors he outlines, a restrictive and corrupting agency that prevents the potential fulfillment of as yet unrealized human purpose on a far greater scale than has hitherto been known or even drafted provisionally, let alone experienced because it has not yet even adequately been conceptualised ~ realistically.

    The unleashing of human imagination is a mighty prospect that cannot be engineered by profane means, as it is essentially a spiritual aspiration and task, that will require the coordinated harnessing of both invincible will and the purity of the incorruptible heart of human kind. All that stands in our way is frailty of purpose, superstition, fear and doubt. These must be banished before we can initiate a complete affirmation of (dare I say? ‘the sacred’) possibilities that Nature assuredly holds fast within her unpredictable coils of limitless time.

    Terrestrial reality is utterly dire for so many who are desperately impoverished and/or displaced, but we can call upon the resources of our cumulative knowledge and innate decency of spirit as human beings to effect practical change, if we just make up our minds & decide to do it; and are determined enough to convince others that it must be done.

    • Hello David:

      It is good to see you here again too. Imagination, like you say, is very important in going beyond the limitations of “Reality”, the effects of which may be eroding both nature and human nature, as has been happening in the historical developmental dynamics of capitalism, imperialism, and science and technology, which, contrary to their pretensions of objectivity and neutrality, are inextricably intertwined and regulated by the particular political economies. Funding by the governments, states, and corporations primarily determine the areas, nature, and directions of research and development activities of overwhelming majority of scientists. Also, the results of their research are alienated from them and monopolized by the corporations, governments, and states, for their profit and power interests. Truly great scientists, like Albert Einstein, who had emphasized the importance of intuition and imagination, considering them much more important than reason and logic, in arriving at great theories and discoveries, are very rare. Even rarer are those who have his politico-economic knowledge and courage to express the flaws of capitalism and advantages of socialism. He also had the courage to regret his role in the development of nuclear weapons. There are no more great macro-level theories, like his theories of relativity, being created. Most scientists are engaged in rather mediocre and routine research, which produce endless gadgets and products, a lot of them harmful to the environment and humans, the worst being the military related products. They all think of themselves as the epitome of reason, logic, and rationality. They consider any opposition to what they are doing as irrational. Such thinking and behavior is also widespread among the political, economic, military, and corporate leaders and personnel. There are countless millions of them, the mass psychology of all of them being regulated by the powers of capital. Very few are able to preserve their integrity, imagination, intuition, and critical thinking, and use these to try to reveal the real nature of reality that is being created. It must be said that imagination can also go wild and bizarre. Dialectical logic and thinking, very rare in the capitalist and imperialist societies, can prevent that from happening, by developing the dialectics of imagination, facts, and reason, revealing the contradictions and their resolution.

      As German-American Marxist philosopher, Herbert Marcuse, had analyzed in great and profound depth, in his 1964 book, One-Dimensional Man, critical thinking, which is of crucial importance in discovering truth, is especially being eroded in the advanced technological societies. That reality has become much worse during the 56 years since that book was published. Empirical and factual evidence of that is everywhere, in politics, economics, society, culture, mass psychology, etc.

      • Thank you for your generous acknowledgment Fazal; I agree. Notwithstanding the immense power of market manipulation and grossly cynical political economic ‘realities’ that dominate public discourse and influence behaviour, I take heart in the great strides that have been made by the ever expanding scope of ecological thought (& imagination,) and in particular the encouraging advances in understanding multispecies relationships and the urgency of acting to conserve and protect natural habitats whilst improving human living standards.

        Tragically, if the currently sickening US trend of neo-fascistic ‘governance’ continues apace, we shall be struggling harder and harder just to witness common sense being afforded the respect it deserves; something has to give, but it certainly won’t be the invincible elemental power of the Earth to restore a resilient sense of proportion. For that reason, Edward O Wilson’s Half-Earth initiative is a very fine example I think, of a universal approach we can all live with, benefit from and support; but until we have a US administration that actually accepts the meaning of ecological sanity, I dare say we shall be compelled to face great disadvantage everywhere, until a practical global consensus emerges to realign our priorities. Nonetheless, as the climate of thought slowly adjusts to the real power of the planetary climate, I remain optimistic!

        • Hello David:

          Thank you for some further elaboration of your views.

          You brought up the subject of imagination that got me thinking about it. Following spontaneous thoughts came to my mind, which are preliminary and not exhaustive. It needs a detailed article.

          Like other human faculties, consciousness, and unconscious, its nature, variability, development, and expression are complex and biosocial. These are, in general, like the former, ultimately regulated by the particular political economies – with dialectical mediation by various secondary factors, like cultures, religions, educational institutions, class status, etc.- in overwhelming majorities of the populations in given societies. Most individual psychological variabilities exist within the frameworks of particular cultures and mass psychologies. Relatively very few individual psychologies overflow those frameworks, but still remain connected to them in dialectical interactions.

          As is self-evident, under capitalism and imperialism, there is no lack of imaginations. To the contrary, these are superabundant. Individuals, businesses, corporations, media, advertisers, academia, religions, militaries, and governments are all imagining in every possible way to exploit individuals, groups, and masses of people for profits, power, and control. This constitutes the greatest corruption and perversion of imagination. Countless millions of people are constantly and feverishly imagining unending newer ways to do that.

          In political establishments, this has been going on throughout history. However, it was never this extreme as it is under the current Trump administration, various officials of which have been engaging in blatant denials of reality, facts, and truth, with a straight face, and imagining, inventing, and substituting unreality, artifacts, and lies for those. It is mind numbing to see them denying the reality of climate change and global warming, in face of all the irrefutable scientific and other evidence. Trump himself is leading his herd in all that. Even the conservative newspaper, Washington Post, has documented thousands of his lies and misleading statements. The man in incapable of opening his mouth without uttering these, which he imagines and substitutes for the facts and truth, arrogantly, shamelessly, and consciencelessly.

          Innumerable propagandists of the system engulf the simplest of truths and facts in torrents of imagined, confusionist, obscurantist, clever, and sophisticated jargons, which make them disappear or given false and misleading meanings. Indeed, this has become the new image and definition of being a scholar. Academia is overflowing with such scholars and wannabe scholars. Simple words about simple truths and simple facts are considered unscholarly. This is truly a nightmarish environment for anyone wanting to expose the truth and facts. One has to remove layers and layers of lies and distortions to expose even the simplest of politico-economic and related truths and facts in this society. Even the, most people choose to shut their eyes, in Pavlovian reaction, and refuse to see them.

          So much for the corruption and perversion of imagination here. In its uncorrupted and unperverted form, imagination is, along with intuition, essential for transition from empirical facts to theory, in which these originate, are grounded, and are reproduced in a regular and systematic manner. This transition also leads to the discovery of laws of nature and society. Such imagination creates new horizons. For example, capitalism and imperialism have been inflicting indescribable injustices, evils, wars, and sufferings on countless billions of people. Karl Marx made thorough studies of various areas of knowledge, found innumerable historical empirical facts, and then made the transition to his theories of Capital, which explained how such facts and events were being produced systematically, with regularity, as well as their causes and laws that governed them. In the epoch of imperialism, Lenin studied the new phenomena that had developed and created new conditions for the expansion of capital internationally, with all the accompanying features of domination of finance capital, enhanced aggressions of advanced capitalist countries, etc. He also made the transition from empirical facts to the theory of imperialism, which continues to explain the nature of imperialism and its current manifestations and operations. In general, the capitalist intellectuals avoid any such theory and deal with empirical facts of imperialism with false imaginary concoctions, attaching to them false imaginary causes.

          I can go on and on, but have to stop here. As mentioned above, this is not an exhaustive explication of the faculty of human imagination. It is very partial and spontaneous.

        • Excellent thoughts, as you suggest, with potential for further significant inquiry.

          A very brief anecdote: when I began my formal university work as a mature student, principally in the field of ‘alternative’ life-long education, esoteric religion and progressive science, I was in my late forties. On one occasion in class, we were discussing potential concepts and I mentioned the notion of virtue as being a useful, seldom deployed descriptive category….this was met with derision and accusations of dated, old-fashioned anachronism!

          Frankly I was amazed, that such cynical dismissal seemed acceptable or was deemed appropriate in an institute of higher learning (on this occasion, at a Plymouth Uni. campus in the UK.). It dramatically inflected my understanding of what constituted intelligent discourse among my peers and clearly illustrated & disclosed the empirical consequences of a range of sociobiological tendencies & congenital vulnerability to psychological conditioning.

          Things have mutated of course since the late ‘nineties, post 9/11 and so forth, as the internet has exponentially facilitated open-access to vast amounts of worthwhile independent work; but systemic tendencies still persist, and in some instances intellectually fraudulent assumptions remain endemic (even, especially) among some tenured academics.

          For what it’s worth Fazal, there is quite an interesting if somewhat ‘selective’ series on PBS, that has been running now for 20 years with Robert L. Kuhn that delivers some very worthwhile free online samples of cogent discussions, snapshot interrogations, of deep ideas ~ generally speaking….representing quite a broad spectrum of rigorous thought. I have some quite strong reservations about the arguably elitist privilege (& sexist bias) this series certainly evinces, but at the same time I find it (occasionally) a very useful ‘generic’ bench-mark and provocative source for stimulating intellectual reflection https://www.closertotruth.com/about/overview .

          Anyway, I wish you every success in the enlightened furtherance of your courageous moral inquiries ~ and also, greatly appreciate the exemplary respect they command for the ethical continuity of rigorous, informed, inclusive thinking generally….

    • This is our “home”. As editor/publisher I have the right to delete comments as necessary. Ones that do not add to the conversation, any/all climate crisis deniers, any/all violent/racist comments are also deleted. Self-promotion comments, ones that only add a link to an article or blog post or video are deleted. Plus ones that verbally attack another person commenting, or the author of the post are deleted.

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