Justice Department will stop medical marijuana raids, Attorney General says + Massive drug sweep nets 750 arrests

Dandelion Salad

by John Byrne and David Edwards
The Raw Story
Thursday February 26, 2009

In a little-noticed remark Wednesday, Obama Attorney General Eric Holder said that the Justice Department will no longer raid medical marijuana dispensaries established under state laws but technically prohibited by the federal government.

The decision marks a shift from the Bush Administration, which was more draconian in its approach to hunting those who sought to dispense marijuana for medical purposes.

Numerous states have decriminalized marijuana in recent years, and new fiscal pressures are turning more states toward being more lenient toward first-time drug offenders as the cost of keeping drug users in jail becomes untenable for state budgets.


via The Raw Story | Justice Department will stop medical marijuana raids, Attorney General says

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Cardoso, Gaviria, Zedillo Urge Obama to Decriminalize Marijuana

Dandelion Salad

By Joshua Goodman
Feb. 11 (Bloomberg)

Former presidents of Brazil, Mexico and Colombia said the U.S.-led war on drugs has failed and urged President Barack Obama to consider new policies, including decriminalizing marijuana, and to treat drug use as a public health problem.

The recommendations by former Brazilian President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, along with Ernesto Zedillo of Mexico and Cesar Gaviria of Colombia, were made in a report today by the Latin American Commission on Drugs and Democracy.

Among the group’s proposals ahead of a special United Nations ministerial meeting in Vienna to evaluate global drug policy is a call to decriminalize the possession of cannabis for personal use.

“We need to break the taboo that’s blocking an honest debate,” Cardoso said at a press conference in Rio de Janeiro to present the report. “Numerous scientific studies show that the damage caused by marijuana is similar to that of alcohol or tobacco.”


via Bloomberg.com: Latin America.

h/t: ICH

FAIR USE NOTICE: This blog may contain copyrighted material. Such material is made available for educational purposes, to advance understanding of human rights, democracy, scientific, moral, ethical, and social justice issues, etc. This constitutes a ‘fair use’ of any such copyrighted material as provided for in Title 17 U.S.C. section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use’, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.


http://www.ssdp.org/briefthechief (sign a letter to the new Drug Czar)

Mosaic News – 1/29/09: World News From The Middle East

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This video may contain images depicting the reality and horror of war/violence and should only be viewed by a mature audience.


Mosaic needs your help! Donate here: http://linktv.org/contribute

Headlines coming soon. Produced for Link TV by Jamal Dajani.

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Elections in Iraq

Gaza farmers devastated by war


Obama’s marijuana prohibition acid test by Bob Fitrakis & Harvey Wasserman

Dandelion Salad

by Bob Fitrakis & Harvey Wasserman
The Free Press
January 14, 2009

The parallels between the 1933 coming of Franklin Roosevelt and the upcoming inauguration of Barack Obama must include the issue of Prohibition: alcohol in 1933, and marijuana today. As FDR did back then, Obama must now help end an utterly failed, socially destructive, reactionary crusade.

Marijuana prohibition is a core cause of many of the nation’s economic problems. It now costs the U.S. tens of billions per year to track, arrest, try, defend and imprison marijuana consumers who pose little, if any, harm to society. The social toll soars even higher when we account for social violence, lost work, ruined careers and damaged families. In 2007, 775,137 people were arrested in the U.S. for mere possession of this ancient crop, according to the FBI’s uniform crime report.

Like the Prohibition on alcohol that plagued the nation from 1920 to 1933, marijuana prohibition (which essentially began in 1937) feeds organized crime and a socially useless prison-industrial complex that includes judges, lawyers, police, guards, prison contractors, and more.


via The Free Press — Independent News Media – Hemp Legalization.



Joint effort – legalising marijuana

Dandelion Salad


Legalising marijuana will save America at least $US 14 billion a year, says the only full-time marijuana lobbyist on Capitol Hill, Aaron Houston, from The Marijuana Policy Project.

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Oldest marijuana stash found in China

Dandelion Salad

Press TV
Fri, 28 Nov 2008 18:24:57 GMT

Researchers have discovered the world’s oldest stash of marijuana, in a tomb near the desert city of Turpan in northwestern China.

According to a research paper published in the Journal of Experimental Botany, the 2,700-year-old cannabis cache was ‘cultivated for psychoactive purposes’.

The dried cannabis was buried with a 45-year-old, light-haired, blue-eyed Caucasian man, who seems to be a shaman of the Gushi culture, The Canadian Press reported.

The dry weather and alkaline soil have preserved the stash, which despite having lost its distinctive odor, still looks green. The cache was found in a leather basket in a wooden bowl, giving rise to the assumption that it was intended for the shaman to use in the afterlife.


via Press TV – Oldest marijuana stash found in China

FAIR USE NOTICE: This blog may contain copyrighted material. Such material is made available for educational purposes, to advance understanding of human rights, democracy, scientific, moral, ethical, and social justice issues, etc. This constitutes a ‘fair use’ of any such copyrighted material as provided for in Title 17 U.S.C. section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use’, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

Industrial capitalism is a given and the natural world is secondary (Interview with Derrick Jensen)

Crossposted at Thomas Paine’s Corner thanks, Jason.

Melissa Gragg and Jason Miller interview Derrick Jensen

“Top priorities may not be any of those five. It may be continuing to stabilize the financial system. We don’t know yet what’s going to happen in January. And none of this can be accomplished if we continue to see a potential meltdown in the banking system or the financial system. So that’s priority number one, making sure that the plumbing works in our capitalist system.” —President-Elect Barack Obama

Ironically, it is the plumbing of that capitalist system that we are using as we flush the future of life on Earth down the toilet.

We can “elect” a charismatic, intelligent man from a brutally oppressed minority to be our president to purge our collective guilt, mouth “feel good” platitudes, celebrate the triumph of “democracy,” and delude ourselves into believing we are preparing to warp back to a fictitious golden era when America was a benevolent guardian of humanity and the Earth, but that doesn’t change the fact that industrial capitalism is rendering this planet uninhabitable.

And just two days after the “election,” we learned that our newly minted “savior,” for whom we were desperate after eight years of “anomalous” malevolence under the Bush administration, is making the viability of our violent, irrational, unstable, exploitative, unjust, and unsustainable socioeconomic paradigm “priority number one.”

Obama has sold his soul to capitalism, a way of being premised on greed, selfishness, materialism, alienation, and infinite growth—a recipe for ecocide.

Perhaps the best “change” for which we can “hope” is that more people will awaken and fall into a despair that spurs them to do something about the rapidly deteriorating state of our environment, frighteningly large increases in the number of extinct species, rising scarcity of potable water, ecological overshoot, and a host of other symptoms of the terminal disease Obama blithely calls the “capitalist system.”

Let’s glean some insight from Derrick Jensen, an anarcho-primitivist, author, lecturer, philosopher, and tireless fighter for a beleaguered, dying planet. Here is a back and forth he had with radical activist, Melissa Gragg, and Cyrano’s Journal Online’s associate editor, Jason Miller, on 4/15/08:

Melissa: Okay, let’s start off with you kind of, I’ve seen a couple interviews, and I guess you have to answer some of the same questions over and over.

Derrick: [laughter]

Melissa: But do you want to explain to people who haven’t read your writing why you think civilization needs to be brought down?

Derrick: Well it’s killing the planet. Ninety percent of the large fish in the oceans are gone. There’s six to ten times as much phytoplankton in the oceans as—I’m sorry, six to ten times as much plastic as there is phytoplankton, and that’s the equivalent of, in temperate forests, of there being Styrofoam ninety feet thick through all the forests, and . . .

Jason: Wow, that’s a pretty horrifying metaphor.

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Deep Events and the CIA’s Global Drug Connection by Peter Dale Scott

Dandelion Salad

by Peter Dale Scott
Global Research, September 19, 2008
– 2008-09-06

The text published below does not include text and endnote numerals. To consult Peter Dale Scott’s article entitled Deep Events and the CIA’s Global Drug Connection, with numbered references and endnotes in word document format click here


Recently I published two articles pointing to suggestive similarities between the recurring deep events in recent American history – those events which, because of their intelligence aspects, are ignored, misrepresented, or covered up in the American media. The first article pointed to overall similarities in many deep events since World War II. The second pointed to surprising points of comparison in the two deep events which were followed shortly by major U.S. wars: the John F. Kennedy assassination and 9/11. In the background of all these events, I suggested, was recurring evidence of the milieu “combining intelligence officials with elements from the drug-trafficking underworld.”

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Federal Court Rules US Govt May Not Deliberately Subvert California’s Medical Marijuana Laws

Dandelion Salad

American Civil Liberties Union
CONTACT: media@aclu.org

SAN JOSE, CA – In a first-of-its-kind ruling, a federal court today held that the U.S. Constitution bars deliberate subversion by the federal government of state medical marijuana laws.

“Utilizing selective arrests and prosecutions, the federal government has sought to sabotage California’s reasoned approach to medical marijuana use,” said Graham Boyd, Director of the ACLU Drug Law Reform Project. “For the first time, a court has recognized that a calculated plan by the federal government to undercut state medical marijuana laws is patently unconstitutional. Today’s decision forecasts an end to any organized federal effort to sabotage state medical marijuana laws.”

While previous high-profile cases affirmed the federal government’s power to enforce federal drug laws against individual medical marijuana patients and providers on a case-by-case basis, today’s ruling clearly recognizes that a calculated pattern of federal enforcement can render state medical marijuana laws effectively inoperable, which would violate the Tenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.

“It is obvious to anyone paying attention that federal officials have gone to great lengths to sabotage state efforts to allow for appropriate medical marijuana use,” said Boyd. “The court made clear that this deliberate interference – once proved – would be unequivocally unconstitutional.”

The case, County of Santa Cruz v. Mukasey, originated in 2003 when Bingham McCutchen LLP and the Drug Policy Alliance, along with private attorneys Gerald F. Uelmen and Benjamin Rice, sued the federal government for raiding a Santa Cruz-area medical marijuana cooperative, the Wo/Men’s Alliance for Medical Marijuana.

The ACLU and others argued, and the court agreed, that the U.S. Constitution permits states to determine for themselves what is legal and what is illegal under state law, and that the federal government may not deliberately undermine this process.

“The federal government has purposely set out to systematically subvert California’s medical marijuana program,” said Daniel Abrahamson, director of legal affairs for the Drug Policy Alliance. “Let us hope that this ruling leads to the merciful end of the federal government’s cruel war on sick and dying medical marijuana patients.”

In today’s ruling, which rejected the federal government’s motion to dismiss the case, Judge Jeremy Fogel of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, San Jose Division, relied on U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit Chief Judge Alex Kozinski’s opinion in Conant v. Walters, which stated, in part, “Applied to our situation, this means that, much as the federal government may prefer that California keep medical marijuana illegal, it cannot force the state to do so.”

In addition to U.S. Attorney General Michael Mukasey, the lawsuit names as defendants U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) agents involved in the raid of WAMM, and administrators of the DEA and Office of National Drug Control Policy.

The court’s ruling is available online at: www.aclu.org/drugpolicy/medmarijuana/36494lgl20080820.html


Nader Calls For Crackdown on Corporate Crime, Reversal of So-Called War on Drugs + Sean Penn

Ron Paul: Drop Federal Penalities for Marijuana

Fossil fuels for fossil thoughts By Rand Clifford

Dandelion Salad

Sent to me by Jason Miller from Thomas Paine’s Corner. Thanks, Jason.

By Rand Clifford

Part II

Petroleum might be the most insidious thing that ever happened to mankind. The ultimate power and control drug…so many things were made too easy by underground oceans of energy waiting to be exploited, offering in turn an easy way for the ruthless to exploit millions of people, reaching even far into the future. Petroleum presents a crucial test of mankind: If you are clever enough to exploit the the resource…are you wise enough to avoid destroying Earth’s life-support systems with it? The cleverness is no problem; as for the wisdom, it’s becoming clear that may be our fatal deficit.

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See No Hemp, Hear No Hemp, Speak No Hemp By Rand Clifford

Dandelion Salad

Part II: Fossil fuels for fossil thoughts By Rand Clifford

Sent to me by Jason Miller from Thomas Paine’s Corner. Thanks, Jason.

By Rand Clifford

Part I

Molders of public opinion work in such insidious ways that their actual methods and means usually go unnoticed. While inculcation of propaganda, lies, and disinformation do much of the shaping, simple omission has profound effect—might even be the favorite because it is, after all, nothing. It’s hard to imagine nothing ever accomplishing so much, but consider that for most people under common awareness manipulation, whatever corporate media (CorpoMedia) omits, to a large extent doesn’t exist.

Flag-draped coffins streaming home in the dead of night from our war crimes in Iraq and Afghanistan are under media blackout, and so mean as little to most Americans as the actual reasons for the invasions, or even the hideous war crimes themselves. By its nature, omission is all but limitless; its application by CorpoMedia has grown to enormous proportions as celebrities and sports overpower hard news. So this article focuses on omission of—the calculated disappearing of a single thing that for thousands of years has profoundly benefitted the health and well-being of people all over the world, and today offers so much more: Cannabis hemp.

6/26/08, the Economist newspaper published: Better Living Through Chemurgy. http://www.truthabouttrade.org/content/view/11985/54/ A decent article overall, at the end of paragraph one it points out that chemurgy is an ugly word; subtle implications being that there might actually be something ugly about chemurgy itself? Chemurgy is a branch of applied chemistry focused on preparing industrial products and consumer goods from agricultural raw materials. The term first appeared in William J. Hale’s 1934 book The Farm Chemurgic. The National Farm Chemurgic Council was formed a year later to foster greater industrial use of agricultural raw material—something ugly in ravenous petrochemical empire eyes….

The Economist article lauds American scientist George Washington Carver for developing hundreds of industrial products from peanuts…then comes disinformation: “In the 1930s, Henry Ford started using parts made from agricultural materials, and even built an ‘all-soy car’”. Sorry, not “all-soy”—Ford made a car in 1941 of mostly resin-stiffened hemp fiber, with hemp plastic windows, and powered by hemp ethanol. Soy resins were used, but it has always been known as Ford’s Hemp Car. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bxlj6fgQ-ZU

Ford loved American farms, which by the mid-twenties were in an economic crisis that would worsen into the great depression. Ford knew that creating new markets for farm products was essential, and with his political and financial backing, the Farm Chemurgy movement started taking off. Ford also knew that with widespread cultivation, hemp could be an economic powerhouse—and that ethanol from hemp, or any other fermentable vegetable matter, was the fuel of the future, something widely agreed upon at the time in the automotive industry.

A favorite quote of Ford’s: “There’s enough alcohol in one year’s yield of an acre of potatoes to drive the machinery necessary to cultivate the fields for one hundred years.” His first Model-T was designed to run on hemp alcohol.

Rudolf Diesel designed the diesel engine to be powered by vegetable oils, such as from hemp seed; at the 1900 world’s fair he ran his new engine on peanut oil.

To the stupendous misfortune of virtually everything but Big Oil, the chemurgy movement was stifled by Big Oil. A new National Energy Program was the subject of many bills in Congress, focused on utilizing part of Americas vast agricultural capacity for production of alcohol fuels. Big Oil responded with withering lobby power, including slogans such as the government’s proposed energy program “robbing taxpayers to make farmers rich”. Then, as now, whatever Big Oil wants, Big Oil gets. Ford’s vision of cheap, clean and renewable biofuels spooked early oil barons into keeping oil prices in the range between $1 and $4 per barrel—prices so low that no other energy sources could compete. But once they were sure the competition had been killed off, the price of oil began to soar. They were not only able to eliminate competition from alcohol fuels…but were instrumental in diddling government into effectively banning hemp cultivation—an incredible robbing of the people to protect entrenched corporate profits that still endures.

Food, fuel, fiber, paper, plastics, medicines…cannabis hemp could turn sunshine, water and carbon dioxide into many thousands of pollution-free products with today’s technology. Nothing else grows so prodigiously. Hemp can be grown in all 50 states, needs no petrochemical inputs, actually improves the soil, and could be a powerful resource for mitigating global warming. However, it’s becoming obvious that the elite want catastrophic global warming to help further their population reduction plans—more on this in a moment.

Chemurgy attracting such renewed attention is certainly encouraging. Though after reading more than a dozen new articles on the subject, I saw no mention of hemp…until I hit an article written by a hero regarding modern hemp awareness, Jack Herer. His book on “Hemp and the Marijuana Conspiracy”: The Emperor Wears No Clothes has seen many printings since its debut in 1985. A true modern classic, Herer’s book points out that not only has the word “hemp” been removed from all high school textbooks…he found that the Smithsonian Institution had also removed “hemp” from all exhibits, replacing it with “other fibers”—even though at the time referred to in the exhibits, hemp made up about 80% of the fibers used, while the fibers mentioned by name, such as cotton and jute, played minor roles. Herer questioned a museum curator about the absence of “hemp”, and was told: “Children don’t need to know about hemp anymore, it confuses them.” Well, when it comes to CorpoMedia, it seems a similar decision has been made for the entire population. The fact that the National Congress of State Legislators has passed sweeping pro-hemp legislation, and the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture also vigorously support commercial production of hemp—as well as more than 15 states, most recently Vermont, having passed pro-hemp legislation…prime omission material for CorpoMedia. Same thing as Congressman Ron Paul’s “Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2007″ which has been comatose in the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security since April 20, 2007.After all, what standard, PAC-fed politico from the world’s leading trafficker of heroin and cocaine wants to appear “soft on drugs”? http://www.druggingamerica.com/ciadrugs/index_cia_right.html

Chemurgy without hemp is almost like fire without heat. Hemp alone could produce more products than all other touted chemurgic candidates combined! Any serious mention of chemurgy should boldly list hemp as the absolute superstar, but as usual…there’s the political stench of Big Oil and its petrochemical empire. Their latest subterfuge involves giving “biofuels” a bad name. By using their legendary clout to help ramrod ethanol from corn, they have not only contrived the outrageous “food-versus-fuel” controversy, but also greatly expanded the massive dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico fed by petrochemical runoff from all the new acres of corn—all the while enhancing their profits with soaring use of petrochemical fertilizers and other petrochemical inputs. http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/editorial/5924145.html It takes as much if not more fossil energy to produce a gallon of corn ethanol as the energy available from that gallon. The energy equation is helped somewhat by corn byproducts, but the bottom line in this heavily taxpayer subsidized boondoggle is: corn is one of the very worst crops we could choose for making ethanol, and hemp is probably the very best; incredible political complications muddy this reality, but under the mud things are very clear.

So why not utilize hemp for biofuels, the most perfect solution available for not only the fuel AND food crisis, but also as a premier scrubber of greenhouse gas? This monumental question has the simplest of answers: entrenched profit, and agenda. Hemp would force profits of Big Oil and its Petrochemical Empire to leak down to farmers…to the people—anathema to the elite. Wealth must flow up, they insist, not down, so THEIR government (CorpoGov) keeps hemp buried with the “marijuana” contrivance, while CorpoGov (and Wall Street) reap trillions from the trafficking of heroin and cocaine, denying average people of the most valuable of crops to supposedly protect them from the “menace of marijuana”. Could there be a better example of hypocrisy as a cornerstone of CorpoGov? Could there by a better example of the sense of it all than Ron Paul’s federal hemp farming legislation being mummified in the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security? In all other industrialized nations this has been an agricultural consideration, meaning ALL other industrialized nations now benefit from hemp farming. But here in the home of Big Oil….

If instead of the obscene prohibition of more than 70 years, American farmers had been “allowed” to grow hemp, we might not be facing the intentional scuttling of America to make way for the elite’s New World Order. Perhaps America’s wealth would not be concentrated in so few hands, and Big Oil with their Petrochemical Empire would not so dominate CorpoMedia and Corpogov. Perhaps the Industrial Military Complex would not be the domestic and global monster it has become, and with goading White House psychopathology, might not have us at the brink of WWIII with imminent attack on Iran. You’ve seen the propaganda about Iran being the most evil incarnation this side of Nazi Germany…but along with Prescott Bush, who helped finance Hitler? http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/sep/25/usa.secondworldwar

And who can say that BushCo under direction of Dick Cheney is not as bad as they’ve ever come? Look closely at the reality of 9/11, especially what it has set in motion, by design. If sheer human suffering is the benchmark…with their terminal legacy of depleted uranium munitions, along with all the outright murders—including 3,000 of their own citizens in one fateful day in September, doesn’t it seem that BushCo/Cheney are treading beyond the brutality that capitalist propaganda whores falsely attribute to “Uncle Joe” Stalin?

Back to hemp: if we rally the intelligence, dedication, and some of the spirit that got America going in the first place…nothing like hemp offers so much in reducing Big Oil and their Empire of CorpoGov and Industrial Military Complex and Global Predatory Capitalism. This is the only reason hemp remains banned in America…. Regional economies, wealth enriching its actual producers, healing of the planet’s life-support systems—even if we find the spirit, do we still have time?

Back to global warming: the sheer wealth and propaganda utilized by Big Oil to make it seem like what is happening is not really happening, that should be a dead giveaway. If global warming caused primarily by runaway consumption of fossil fuels were not happening—were not dramatically accelerating as climate science professionals plus irrefutable evidence say, why would so much elite wealth be thrown at denying it? A main reason is that, for the elite, global warming is a maximum ally. How else could their planned 90% reduction of human population be so effortlessly achieved?

Such is the essence of Part II….

Rand Clifford is a writer living in Spokane, Washington, with his wife Mary Ann, and their Chesapeake Bay retriever, Mink. Rand’s novels CASTLING, TIMING, VOICES OF VIRES, and PRIEST LAKE CATHEDRAL are published by StarChief Press: http://www.starchiefpress.com


Fossil fuels for fossil thoughts By Rand Clifford (Part II)

King Hemp Part I: From DEA Deadly Birdseed, Toward Power to the People By Rand Clifford

King Hemp: Part 2: Battle Lines: Natural, Or Synthetic…Life, Or Death? By Rand Clifford

King Hemp Part 3: We Got Mugged, So Let’s Get Hemp Back By Rand Clifford

King Hemp IV: Rope and Dope By Rand Clifford

King Hemp V: Industrial Disease By Rand Clifford

Nader Calls For Crackdown on Corporate Crime, Reversal of So-Called War on Drugs + Sean Penn

Dandelion Salad

Updated: Added video

by Ralph Nader
Friday, August 8, 2008
News Release
Contact: Toby Heaps, 202-471-5833

WASHINGTON, Aug. 8–At a news conference today Presidential Candidate Ralph Nader outlined his plan to empty prisons of non-violent drug offenders and fill them up with corporate criminals.

“Non-violent drug offenses are being over prosecuted and corporate crime is being under prosecuted,” Nader said. “The Justice Department must begin to reverse course, crank up the crackdown on corporate crime, and end the cruel and inhumane war on non-violent drug possession.” Continue reading

Ron Paul: Drop Federal Penalities for Marijuana

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SHEAR NOW! http://capwiz.com/norml2/issues/alert…
NORML is pleased to report that H.R. 5843, an “Act to Remove Federal Penalties for Personal Use of Marijuana by Responsible Adults,” has been introduced in the House of Representatives by Representatives Barney Frank and Ron Paul.

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more about “HELP MAKE MARIJUANA LEGAL RIGHT NOW!“, posted with vodpod


Marijuana May Be Effective For Neuropathic Pain

Dandelion Salad

American Pain Society
June 29, 2008

The growing body of evidence that marijuana (cannabis) may be effective as a pain reliever has been expanded with publication of a new study in The Journal of Pain reporting that patients with nerve pain showed reduced pain intensity from smoking marijuana.


FAIR USE NOTICE: This blog may contain copyrighted material. Such material is made available for educational purposes, to advance understanding of human rights, democracy, scientific, moral, ethical, and social justice issues, etc. This constitutes a ‘fair use’ of any such copyrighted material as provided for in Title 17 U.S.C. section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use’, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.