Recently the Overunity and Energetics online forums (the largest virtual meeting places and “home” for many in the Open Source / “Free Energy”communities), and several other similar Internet sites have been featuring and discussing an amazing phenomena popularly known as: “The Rosemary Ainslie Circuit“. The name comes from the South African woman who first noted the predicted effects while testing a circuit designed to verify her unique Unifying Theory of Physics. Rosemary had written a new and interesting model for electro-magnetism that she was convinced could be proved empirically by building a circuit that manifested energy efficiencies which defied “conventional” theory… And that is essentially what has happened: The anomalous energy readings that have been recorded with this circuit defy conventional explanation.
The original circuit and recent replications show “excess” energy output: But it is important to note, that this is not what is termed “energy creation”; but energy coming from a previously unknown source in an “open system”, not a closed one… Much as a sailboat is powered by the “invisible” wind. Thus these claims cannot be shrugged-off with the old epithet of “perpetual motion nonsense”; which implies “energy created from nothing”. One can do a Search online at the Los Alamos National Labs Physics Archives for the phrase “Zero Point Energy“, and see literally hundreds of entries for Abstracts and Peer-Reviewed Scientific Papers that discuss the reality of energy coming from unseen sources that do not adhere at all to the Laws of Thermodynamics (first written in the 1860’s). It is important to note that despite the lack of general public awareness regarding the above; these concepts are no longer “Fringe Science”.
The discovered effect seen in the Ainslie Circuit cannot be easily explained through conventional theory; yet it has been verified in a scientific manner using widely accepted measurement techniques… The same as are used daily all over the world to record the experiments backing Scientific Papers and Abstracts at our major Universities; or as critical factors in making multi-million dollar project funding decisions in the private sector. And these positive and well-documented results, collected using accepted Scientific Method, are now being widely reported on via articles and by the submission of a new Scientific Paper authored by Rosemary Ainslie and the Open Source project team, that is currently being considered for publication by the I.E.E.E (submitted December 2009).
All the recent results stem from the work of the many skilled and dedicated people of the Open Source Energy community: Folks working and collaborating in their homes all over the world to further scientific knowledge. The Open Source community is an independent entity with no allengences, no funding, no leaders, no government Grant requirements or pressures, and no set dogmas. It is a unique phenomena in the history of Science; as at no time before this present electronic age could people all over the world collaborate so closely and successfully to study these often controversial subjects… To a point where their efforts are now challenging the mainstream scientific community as a new and independent source for research and discovery in the genre of alternative energy… A subject that has vast political and economic ramifications, and that presents significant possibilities for world-wide positive social change.
Over six years ago, the Rosemary Ainlsie Circuit was originally reported by several witnesses and was independently Verified to have shown a Coefficient Of Performance greater than “17” (known as “COP>17”); specifically electrical energy efficiency in the heating of a resistive element. Meaning in this case; the circuit when properly built and tuned could show over “17 times” the heating efficiency that could be expected compared to a “conventional” device such as an electric “space heater” or “baseboard heater”. So if a conventional household heater was rated at “1,700 Watts”, a Rosemary Ainslie Circuit or similar concept-based device could produce the same amount of heat for only “100 Watts” of actual expended power… Something of great significance not only for vastly cheaper and more ecologically sound Home Heating for folks all over the planet…. But for ushering in new understandings of electrical energy in general: Such “Nearly Free Energy” devices of great efficiency will eventually force the changing of conventional Physics theory to account for them; disproving current scientific dogma regarding mainstream “electromagnetic theory”.
These initial amazing results regarding the experiments on the Ainslie Circuit, which prompted the renewed interest in 2009, were first posted over 6 years ago by Rosemary in her home country of South Africa; and published in an article of “Quantum Magazine“. The circuit was also tested by several independent commercial labs at that time (a total of five companies were involved in the Verification process); which fully Verified the claims (see end of this document for schematic and links). Later, Rosemary Ainslie and a member of her former team wrote a Scientific Paper on the phenomena and submitted it to the I.E.E.E. (the international “Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers”) for publication. This Paper was rejected; the main reason given appears to have been a technical problem of it not properly taking into account issues related to the “555” integrated circuit within it. The “555” oscillator chip and associated circuitry in question used a separate, isolated battery for power; but please note that later experiments with a single Voltage Source have subsequently shown that the “555” energy use does not significantly effect the total efficiency figures. The refusal of the South Africa academics and mainstream press to study or further report on these effects ended the earlier endeavors for a time… Until this year, when several folks in the Open Source Energy Community took up the challenge of studying and replicating the circuit. The fairly difficult and complex task of Replication has been done successfully by several people now, with more people reporting positive results every week. The results are dramatic enough, well documented enough, and have such a vast significance; that much greater research is clearly warranted.
For the last 6 months, many good folks in the Open Source Energy community have been studying and replicating this circuit…. And at least three so far have had success in duplicating the specific effects that cause the great heating efficiency, and probably others have as well with related circuits that are offshoots on the same basic theme. It is important to understand, that much more work studying this is needed, it is still in the early experimental prototype stages… And that there are many possibilities for practical uses and parallel applications yet unexamined. “COP” efficiencies greater than “4” have already been recorded in the recent 2009 replications; and can be possibly much higher as the voltage pulse levels seen in the waveforms often go beyond the limits for measurement of the present equipment; but the addition of High Voltage Probes should solve this in the future.
Another “branch” of investigation, as first reported and documented by Open Source researcher Aaron Murakami of Energetics forum, has taken much of the anomalous energy present and sent it back to re-charge the source batteries… For results also showing “extreme efficiency”. In effect, this circuit variation both dissipates heat and re-powers itself simultaneously. This has in small part to do with the peculiarities of Lead-Acid Batteries: In previous years in the Free Energy community, it has been shown by well-known Free Energy Inventor John Bedini and others (Mr. Bedini now markets the “Renaissance” line of pulsing battery chargers), that batteries can be “pulse-charged” for much better energy efficiency and general benefit. This efficiency in battery charging, coupled with the inductive pulse-based effect seen in the Rosemary Ainslie Circuit when it is “tuned” properly, appears to allow for the release of energy from a yet undefined source… A source that could equally be called many things at this early point: “Zero Point Energy”, “Dark Matter Energy”, “Aetheric”, and dozens of others possible names.
Certainly the results so far are more than enough to warrant much greater research: In fact, the well-documented test results loudly demand greater interest and research by our mainstream academic community. And that is entirely the point of the Open Source efforts. In such an Open Source project, done by independent people all over the world, there is no “Patenting” of a device, no “Copyrighting”. There is only open cooperation in the search for scientific knowledge and the betterment of Humankind. The Ainslie Circuit would be the “perfect” project for research by a University that professes to be truly interested in alternative energy… but so far, at this date of December 2009, there are still no university studies being done on this amazing effect openly available for all to see for over six years now.
Two of the good folks who have recently successfully replicated the Rosemary Ainslie Circuit were blessed with the temporary use of expensive measurement tools; Digital Storage Oscilloscopes from the Tektronix company (…termed “Digital Phosphor Oscilloscopes” by Tektronix)… For which the Open Source Energy community was very grateful; as these instruments allow for very precise measurement and the ability to store waveform data to PC for later analysis… exactly what was needed to prove or disprove an experiment of this type containing highly complex waveforms in a professional and credible manner.
It has been a laborious and bumpy road to reach this summit; as reviewing the long, long forum threads in the Overunity and Energetics Open Source / Free Energy internet forums show (with many thousands of posts each). The Ainslie circuit has highly complex waveforms, and by all reports is somewhat difficult and sensitive to properly adjust to force the “MOSFET”, a type of transistor/semiconductor, into the needed astable oscillation condition; and it defies any easy explanations. The many skeptics and naysayers present in the Overunity forum and elsewhere daily made counter claims in the threads, but every one of their negative suppositions and alternative explanations were knocked down one-by-one by the results of carefully measured and recorded data posted there by the researchers. But the “honest skeptics”, and even some of the naysayers in the threads, did the Community an important service; as the great controversy evident in these lively forum threads prove quite graphically that the Open Source Energy community is “self-regulated” and “self criticised”… And can be firmly grounded in reason and scientific method. They prove that the community has evolved from the commonly-held view of being wild-eyed “free energy kooks” from the 1970’s and 1980’s… To a “near-mainstream” group of serious individuals who understand and maintain proper protocol in scientific endeavors… Performing the highly important service of objectively examining and experimenting with controversial alternative energy technologies that our mainstream academic community consistantly refuses to do.
The Circuit and Effect
The Rosemary Ainslie Circuit is about creating heat using very little electrical energy. And it appears to do this using a combination of the Inductance of the coil that is an inherent part of the resistive heating element, as well as the unusual astable oscillation of the MOSFET semiconductor. The MOSFET is carefully tuned to run in a condition that is outside of the usual envelope of operation… It is sent by the careful tuning of potentiometers into a wild “runaway” state that generates many very sharp and narrow pulses. This unusual state of affairs is very likely the main reason why the unique “Ainslie Effect” has not been noted before, because the MOSFET is being used in such an unintended manner. Commerical engineers, and even the manufacturers, would rarely bother to test a semiconductor device outside of the published specifications, and expecially not in the unwanted astable “runaway” condition; which analog electronic engineers carefully avoid. To discover the effect, they would need to couple this normally-shunned state with the properly-built resistive/inductive element, and also probably need to use a battery instead of a DC power supply. A nearly-fully charged battery’s high Output Impedance, higher than nearly all DC voltage supplies, appears to also be important for the effect to be seen with this particular circuit; and even adding Capacitors to collect the energy has been shown to dampen the effect. So these factors could explain how in over a Century of practical electrical research both commercial and academic; no one has openly previously reported such significant gains in heating energy efficiency.
For over 20 years, and even over a hundred years ago regarding the work of Nikola Tesla, dozens of “Free Energy” inventors and researchers working on widely different devices have noted that anamalous gains in energy are often related to the use of similar “fast, sharp pulses”. It has been often speculated that these pulses with very short Rise and Fall Times somehow help “unlock” the Zero Point, Vaccum, or Aetheric Energy so it can manifest itself as electrical energy. But here the empirical data predates the widely-accepted Theory to explain it all: A situation that is certainly not unique to the history of Science!
The transient spikes from the MOSFET operating in runaway “astable oscillation mode”, help to both magnify in amplitude and increase in number (Frequency), the inductive spikes that come from the Resistive Element. It is these pulse “spikes” that actually generate the heat in the resistive wire of the heating element, and do so with much greater efficiency than standard sine wave AC, or “flat” DC voltage would. The resistive element is specially made: With many turns of resistive wire around a fairly large diameter round glass tube. Different tests have shown that the size and configuration of this resistive element may be important to the effect; standard heating elements or normal Shunt Resistors without a large enough amount of Inductance, do not appear to work as well and may not allow the effect to happen at all. The gifted and skilled Open Source Researcher, Internet name “Fuzzytomcat” (Glen Lettenmaier), one of the first to Replicate the Ainslie Circuit successfully in 2009, has built several configurations of the special inductors/resistors for test… And his fine work in building, tuning, measuring, documenting, and analyzing test results… Extremely well recorded and presented using the Tektronix Digital Phosper Oscilloscope stored data, still photos, and “You Tube” videos… Conclusivly prove using accepted industry-standard methods that this circuit has definite anamalous qualities in energy efficiency, and that the Rosemary Ainslie Circuit and effect deserves very close scrutiny from our scientific mainstream community.
Another key member of the Open Source Team, Internet name Harvey (Harvey Gramm), has done great work in futhering the science regarding this anamalous circuit. He contributed greatly to the well-written 2009 Scientific Paper from the Open Source Team submitted to IEEE in December; and his expertese in electronics has helped ensure that the entire project has an aura of respectability, adheres to Scientific Method as much as possible, and remains well grounded in reality. Those in the Open Source Community are grateful for Harvey’s input and stoic common sense.
Figure 1: The latest recommended Schematic for the Rosemary Ainslie Circuit, by Glen Lettenmaier. The “R3” 10 Ohm “LOAD Resistor” at the left represents the actual heating element. “Q1” is the “IRFPG50” MOSFET semiconductor.
Figure 2: A collection of several homemade 10 Ohm Resistive / Inductive Heating Elements built by Glen Lettenmaier using “Ni Cr” resistive wire around a glass tube, doped with thermal coating (Note: there should be a one wire-width space between each individual winding).
Figure 3: A typical screen-shot view of the Waveforms seen when the circuit is properly tuned, from one of the Model TDS3054C Digital Phosphor Oscilloscopes provided for this use by the Tektronix Corporation.
Figure 4: Expanded time-base view of the same signals. Full explanation of the channels and probe Test Points are available at the Energetics Forum thread (see “Links” below).
Rosemary Ainslie and her Idea
Rosemary graciously agreed to be interviewed for this article from her home in South Africa, and answer a few brief questions. Much more on her facinating and unique Unifying Theories of Physics can be seen at the links below. It is important to note that she has freely admitted her controversial theories might someday be proved “wrong”: Yet her perseverance in seeing the empiracal effects noted and positivly recorded help prove that there is indeed something of importance here that requires the mainstream scientific community to take a hard and honest look at this phenomena… And to not shirk from what they may find. And when the results are objectivly examined, she has so far been correct in her predictions.
S. Windisch: When you were initially considering a method of empirically demonstrating the anomalous energy release that your theories predicted, what made you first decide on using this particular circuit? Were there other, widely different circuits tested and rejected before the present basic configuration was accepted for testing?
R. Ainslie: This was the first and only. It seemed obvious to me, in terms of the model that the interrupted current would allow a return flow of current from the energy locked in the resistor – which would then enable a return of the energy first introduced to the system.
S. Windisch: What were the reactions of the people involved in the earlier South African campaign to gain recognition for the circuit’s effects… Such as the 5 commercial lab companies that were involved in reproducing and verifying it, the other eyewitnesses, and the editors at “Quantum Magazine” who published the article on it? Were they personally enthusiastic about it? Did you meet with much open skepticism during this period six years ago?
R. Ainslie: Plenty of interest from industry but none from academics. Industry did much more to explore the questions than even I could manage. Sasol offered a bursary award. All willingly allowed their name to be referenced in that Paper – as it related to their request for academic involvement and research. To date not one academic has been prepared to attend a demonstration of the device. Note that MTN Sciencentre requested the apparatus to display during an international conference held around the time after that publication. NOT ONE SCIENTIST attended that demonstration.
S. Windisch: What can you tell us about your “life experiences” that brought you here… What drove you to create your Physics model theory in the first place?
R. Ainslie: I read a book – The Dancing Wu Li Masters. I was gripped and started trying to answer the questions as they related to energy itself. I had no training so used symmetries to replace the required mathematics. It seemed to be enough to support the logic for the development of that model.
S. Windisch: Regarding your theories, can you give us a brief thumbnail description of them? How do they differ from “classical” / commonly accepted electrical and magnetic “Laws” / Theory?
R. Ainslie: The theories differ from classical by proposing a fundamental particle that shapes the universe. Composites of this particle create matter. Stable composites form the observable universe. But energy itself is exchanged at this fundamental particle level which is removed from our dimensions. Effectively I think it is the dark energy from dark matter that is identified by our astrophysicists.
S. Windisch: Following-up on that, where specifically do you suspect, or believe, the “excess” anomalous energy seen in your Circuit is actually coming from? How do the “Zipons”, your name for the new proposed particle, fit into this?
R. Ainslie: When electron currents flow, when a path is forged through electric circuitry, they also induce a corresponding imbalance in the inductive components of that circuit. This is widely known. It is seen as ‘stored’ energy. But the difference to convention and this model is subtle. This stored energy establishes an imbalance in the circuit material – in that resistor or that element. Being imbalanced these fields also require an established state of balance. And given a chance to re-establish this balance, a chance to reduce this experienced and measurable potential difference, they in turn induce a second flow of current, in anti-phase to the first flow of current. So, provided that there is a path available in the circuit, it too can return its extruded fields back to it’s own supply source being the resistor or the element itself. In other words there are two sources of energy in every one cycle of current flow through a closed circuit. The one is induced from the supply source, the other is induced from the resistor in series with that supply. Both have independent supply or energy sources and both are able to reduce their potential difference provided that some circuit path is made available to do this.
The availability of the path is in the circuit design itself. Here the source battery induces the first current path cycle, clockwise. Then that flow is interrupted by opening the switch and ‘taking away’ the required closed path. But simultaneously there is a new path opened for the second cycle where the resistor transfers its energy onto a second path – anticlockwise. At fast frequencies, the two cycles are able to resonate against each other, like a swing that is first pushed in one direction and then in the other. And the net result is that the energy that is applied from the source is then returned to the source. The energy that is applied from the circuit is returned to the circuit. But in both cases that energy is simply strings of zipons that are trying to get back to their respective sources in order to diminish their experienced imbalance or their measured potential differences. So under these special circuit conditions there is not only a conservation of energy, being the zipons themselves which return to their respective sources, but there is also a conservation of charge in the supply which is then continually recharged during the second cycle of the switched circuit.
But what then explains the “heat” that is measured to be dissipated at the source? Here, again in line with observation but possibly not in line with classical thought, it is proposed that the zipons that are not extruded from the material of the circuit components, remain in the material, in the inductive wire itself. But the essential symmetry of their fields has been broken through the extrusion of some of its fields. This break results in a state of chaos that excites these fields into a cascade of zipons that re-congregate within that material – in their attempt to regain that state of balance.
It is further proposed that the size of the zipons relates to its velocity. In a field they are cold and fast and small and entirely undetectable. But break those symmetries, and in a precise and inverse proportionate ratio the zipons become hot and slow and manifest. This, in turn results in some of those zipons decaying into photons and then radiating away from the resistive material itself. This results in the systematic degradation of the bound state of the resistor, which is seen as material fatigue.
S. Windisch: How would you like to see your discovery used? What would be the desired path for this circuit / effect to take? Assuming it gains acceptance and greater awareness, what should happen next with it?
R. Ainslie: We need to firm up on the mathematics to predict the effect and get it better exploited. But to do this also requires research into the differing materials and components required to optimize the effect. I suspect there will be the requirement to introduce different types of inductive materials. But the real advantage to the model is that it points to the potential of magnetic interfacing to enable a continual current supply. That branch of research will be both exotic and expensive.
The Effect, and the Significance
When asked to reflect on this endeavor and experience of replicating and verifying the Rosemary Ainslie Circuit, Open Source Researcher and key project member Glen Lettenmaier, who has worked countless hours over the last several months building, testing, and recording his positive results with the Circuit (often through a barrage of unfounded criticism from the skeptics and naysayers), summed it up this way:
“What brings most to mind on this project are two things, the first being a movie called ‘The Medicine Man’ where an individual’s best efforts were totally lost due to varying circumstances and had to be re-found, and the second was the skepticism and refusal from so many, all seemingly knowledgeable but going by their education and not willing to do any experiments on their own… Similar to a quote from one of our greatest from years ago:
‘The scientists from Franklin to Morse were clear thinkers and did not produce erroneous theories. The scientists of today think deeply instead of clearly. One must be sane to think clearly, but one can think deeply and be quite insane. Today’s scientists have substituted mathematics for experiments and they wander off through equation after equation and eventually build a structure which has no relation to reality.’ – Nikola Tesla (‘Modern Mechanix and Inventions’, July 1934)”
Indeed. The dis-connect between what the mainstream claims is “Possible”, and what the properly collected empirical data presented regarding the Rosemary Ainslie Circuit demonstrates, is quite wide… to a point approaching embarrassment for the mainstream scientific community. It is possible for that reason and others, that there will be much resistance to accepting this data at first: It has not been sanctioned by any mainstream institution (yet), nor did tenured scientists collect it. And it has not been funded by anyone. It has been done outside of the mainstream, by those who are not under any obligations or restraints due to what Dr. Eugene Mallove once called: “The Politics of Science” . However, the entire point of this Open Source endeavor is to gain the help of the scientific mainstream in further studying the effect… So the planet and Humanity can benefit from it. Hopefully this basic imperative that goes deep to our instinctual need to protect our children and grandchildren, will win out over any “emotional” or “political” issues mainstream scientists may have to viewing this discovery objectively.
Rosemary Ainslie has had great difficulty in getting this information out to the world over the years. Despite the many proofs provided, she was utterly ignored by the South Africa and international academic community. One of her most active original team members died suddenly. Others in the original Team simply lost heart and dropped out when it was realized that despite their successes they had met with an implacable stone wall… And simply went back to their normal lives. Yet the renewed interest in 2009 has rejuvenated this Cause and has added weight to the Discovery. And the new data, collected with properly accepted means and method, should, in a “real world” governed by Reason and the desire for honest scientific achievement for the betterment of Humankind, be more than enough to gain widespread academic interest.
If it turns out that the present proofs are somehow not enough, then more can and will be provided. Because this Circuit, this Effect, is not going away. It is now in the Public Record, Open Sourced for the world to see. Millions of poor and middle class people may someday soon benefit from the great energy efficiently that has been positively demonstrated to be possible here. Eventually, the effects seen in the Rosemary Ainslie Circuit will not be limited to “heating”, and can be utilized for greater power efficiencies in many varied applications once the studies progress, and understanding grows.
It is important for all reading this article to note, and carefully watch, what happens next regarding the Rosemary Ainslie Circuit. Increased Public Awareness should help ensure that there will be significant mainstream scientific interest, and that the careful study of this Effect can then move to the next levels. The Open Source paradigm, with all the required information to replicate the Circuit already available over the Internet and by other means for millions to see… Will see to it. We of the Open Source Rosemary Ainslie Circuit Project Team would request that those affiliated with a university or scientific institute (be it employee, Alumni, or other), to please contact the institution to inform and request that they look closely into this. Department Heads of Universities should consider that the time, and imperative, for studying alternative energy technologies previously outside of the mainstream has come.
All channels of communication are open, and all serious inquiries are welcome. The ball is now in the mainstream scientific & academic community’s court. Those who understand that our planet’s current dangerous and deplorable situation regarding “Energy” can no longer be sustained or excused… And in fact has become a serious threat to the future of this planet… Attentively await.
Members of the 2009 Open Source Rosemary Ainslie Circuit Project Team:
Rosemary Ainslie (Internet name seen in the Forums: “Witsend”)
Harvey Gramm (“Harvey”)
Glen Lettenmaier (“Fuzzytomcat”)
Ashweth Palise (“Ash”)
Steve Windisch (“Jibbguy”)
Open Source Researchers and Circuit Replicators of Special Note:
Dr. Peter Lindemann
Michael John Nunnerley
… And the many folks in the Open Source Energy Community; whose collective efforts are making a real difference in this world; and without whose input and support these events could not have happened!
Our heartfelt Thanks go to the Tektronix Corporation; for their generosity in providing the superb-quality instruments needed to properly record and verify the results.
The Quantum Magazine October 2002 article on the original 2001 / 2002 Rosemary Ainslie Circuit project; listing the independent companies involved in Verification.
A Paper and Abstract by Ms. Ainslie and Donovan Martin, Describing her main “Unifying Field Model”.
Ms. Ainslie’s Blog Site, which details her “A Magnetic Field Model”
The 2009 Scientific Paper on the Rosemary Ainslie Circuit, titled: “Open Source Evaluation of Power Transients Generated to Improve Performance Coefficient of Resistive Heating Systems”… submitted 12-2009 by Rosemary Ainslie and the Open Source Team to the I.E.E.E. (…yet to be Accepted for Publication, the process may take up to 3 months).
Note: Professional comment on this Paper, Questions, and Requests for more information by Academics and Scientists of all Nationalities and Disciplines are welcome and desired. Those interested may reach the Open Source Team and Rosemary Ainslie through the Energetics or Overunity forums or the Panacea BOCAF site listed below (or contact S. Windisch via “Facebook” or “OpEd News”).
The Overunity.com Free Energy Forum, one of the two main homes for the Open Source Energy community. This link is for the main Rosemary Ainslie Circuit thread. “Lively” discussion with a large Skeptic participation.
The Energetic Forum; main home for the current serious Ainslie Circuit research and test results posting. Again, the link is for the Rosemary Ainslie Circuit thread specifically; but the main forum, as well as the above Overunity forum, contain hundreds of other interesting and important alternative energy topics.
Patrick’s Practical Guide to Free Energy Devices. Great general source for many alternative energy technologies, including info on the Ainslie Circuit.
Panacea-BOCAF , “Building Our Children a better Future”; one of the best sources for Open Source Energy “Do-It-Yourself” building / replication information, covering dozens of subjects. Also featuring information on the Rosemary Ainslie Circuit. Panacea Trustees Andrew Gardner and Ashweth Palise are also Ainslie Circuit Project Team Members.
The Rex Research Site, another great Alternative Energy information resource. Link is to general info on the Ainslie Circuit and Effect.
The Free Energy Facebook Group. This Facebook Group page is administered by the Author (Steve Windisch, also a Project Team Member), and contains information on the Circuit (see “Photos”, “Wall”, and “Discussion” areas). All “Facebook” members are welcome to join; “non-members” are welcome to peruse (most info there is available without joining Facebook).
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